Causes of Kidney Stones

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Most kidney stones are composed of either calcium oxalate or uric acid.  The reasons kidney stones form vary based on lifestyle,  medical condition, and diet.


  • Excess salt or protein intake.

  • Inadequate fluid consumption

  • Excess oxalate consumption


  • Diabetes or Metabolic Syndrome

  • Hyperparathyroidism

  • Medullary Sponge Kidney

  • Malabsorption (e.g. Crohn's Disease)

  • Obesity

  • Renal Tubular Acidosis (overly acidic blood composition)

  • Hypercalciuria (excess calcium excretion in urine)


  • Topiramate (Topamax), Acetazolamide (Diamox)

  • HIV medications

  • Calcium supplements