This is also sometimes called Syndrome X. It
refers in particular to overweight people whose
bodies are resistant to the effects of insulin.
People with the metabolic syndrome are at high risk
for developing diabetes. Common clinical
traits are obesity, high triglyceride levels, low
HDL ("good cholesterol"), fasting blood sugar above
110, and elevated blood pressure.
Relationship To Kidney Stones:
The metabolic syndrome is associated with low urine
pH (acidic urine) and citrate levels. Research
has shown that heavier people have lower urine pH
values. This increases the risk for kidney
stones. For those with uric acid stones, high
doses of citrate and other medications may be
necessary to raise the urine pH.
Diabetes is most often associated with insulin
resistance. The body is insensitive to the
effects of insulin. In many diabetics,
especially early in the disease, blood insulin
levels are actually elevated. Diabetics also
have low urine pH values which leads to stones.
Diabetes over time can lead to high blood pressure
and kidney damage. The preferred medications
for diabetes and/or the presence of kidney damage
will complicate treatment of stones in this group.
Potassium citrate is not always safe to administer.
Sometimes only sodium citrate can be used or
acetazolamide must be prescribed. Both of
these medications increase urine pH which helps
prevent or dissolve uric acid stones.