stones can be one of the most troublesome for
patient and physician. These are fast growing
stones that grow to fill up the naturally occurring
cavities in the kidney to take on a "staghorn"
appearance. Staghorns most commonly, but not
always, occur with urinary tract infections which
lead to the precipitation of magnesium amonium
phosphate crystals; hence the name "infectious
stones". Non-infectious stones such as
uric acid and cystine can also form large cavity
filling staghorns as shown in the picture below.
stones are difficult to remove and often require
extensive surgery. The infection often gets
deep into the stone where antibiotics cannot
penetrate. Therefore, many people will have
recurrent infections. Preventing recurrence
involves not only full removal of the stone and
infected fragments, but also effective sterilization
of the urine and kidney with antibiotics.
Unfortunately, the infection is often difficult to
eradicate and stones often recur. Certain
bacteria which cause an increase in urine pH, are
associated with these stones. A common cause
These stones can cause significant damage to the
involved kidney. Sometimes kidney removal
prior to transplantion is necessary.